What is a logical fallacy? It is an error in reasoning which leads to an invalid argument. There are a number of logical fallacies out of which I have shortlisted the most common ones. Here we go:
1. Appeal to popularity: Just because the crowd believes in a thing, the thing must be true and correct. The premise here is that the crowd is well-informed about stuff and is intellectually rich so as to judge truth or untruth, correct or incorrect. By this premise anything being done by the crowd or any ‘premise’ held by the crowd must be correct. So even things like racism could get some justification. It is kind of a circular argument as in “it must be true because they say it is true”, no premises are in question.
2. Appeal to authority: Just because an authoritative person says something, it must be true and correct. No premises are asked for by the believers in order to check if the conclusion logically follows the premises or not or even to check if the premises are themselves factual or imaginary. It is kind of a worshipper mentality where one person is completely faithful to another person and believes whatever that persons says.
3. Composition/division: Just because one examined part of a thing is bad or good, all other (unexamined) parts must be the same. The premise here is that all the parts of the particular thing are one and the same and hence examination of just one part is enough to ascertain the nature of the unexamined parts. So in case of gangrene in one foot, the whole body must have been gangrened.
4. Personal attack: A personal attack on someone while arguing instead of attacking the premises and arguments of his. Like “all you’re saying is baseless because you’re a liar.” Now to prove that the other person is a liar, there needs to be given a list of evidences which would deviate the whole debate. The main purpose of doing so is to safeguard your own self by hook or by crook when you’re about to lose in an argument.
5. No belief: When even in the presence of a compelling evidence, the opponent disagrees simply by saying “I don’t believe”, hence “I won’t believe.” This usually happens with people who hold such strong beliefs about certain things that no matter how much opposite evidence you present, they won’t change their minds.
Logical fallacies bring down the level of a debate and often lead to losses. In order to search for truth, you must be true to reasoning and should not commit logical fallacies. Appreciation for those who do not commit them, and for those who do, I hope they’ll unveil their rationality soon.