Assumptions Vs Facts: 3 most common logical fallacies


Irrespective of how serious we feel we are, we commit numerous logical fallacies throughout our daily life. A logical fallacy is an assumption which is made as the base of an argument and is asserted strongly as being a fact. All it does it waste your time & energy and bring down the level of the debate or inquiry. Following are the most common of them.

  • Appeal to purity: “Too pure to commit any wrong” is a small illustration of this logical fallacy. It could apply to a person, a group or even an ideology, which ‘you assume’ to be the epitome of purity, ethics or morals. Here it is ‘your assumption’ which at first has to be proved to be true.


  • Appeal to authority: This is just another shade of the aforesaid fallacy. This takes into consideration the professional status or general social status of the person being discussed or the person speaking. “He is a scientist, so whatever he says about science or nature, has to be true in all cases” is an illustration. Second illustration could be “I am a lawyer, how can I be wrong about the interpretation of this legal provision”. In both the cases, it is the ideas being produced by the scientist & the lawyer which are to be examined, irrespective of the good or bad record of professional performance of both of them.


  • Fallacy of proportion/constitution: “Out of numerous parts of something, if one part of it is of a particular nature, so all parts of it must be of that very particular nature” is an illustration. The assumption is that all parts are equal in all respects. This illustration can also apply for proving something or someone as being wholly good or wholly bad.


If you value your time and energy, if you value your own self, if you respect your own self, then you must guard your intellectual integrity and must not present your assumptions as facts, that simply means you must not lie.

image source